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Replacing fossil fuels: the scale of the problem

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http://www.abelard.org/news/oil3.htm#oil010203

01.02.2003

World primary energy consumption

As you can see from the world oil resources table, the current – let alone the increasing future – fossil oil extraction rate is unsustainable in the long run. Easily accessible reserves are already being depleted at an enormous rate.

I intend to build relevant data that will enable rational discussion and planning on where we go from here.

To forward this process, below is a table of current world energy consumption, with details for several countries. Other countries may be added on request, or you may wish to use the sources referenced at the end of this item.

Figures/percentages should not be taken to be anything but approximations. It is intended to break down the data further to show applications of energy usage.

In the meantime, I am working on the crude assumption that western economies use power for three main purposes: heating, transport and electricity generation, and that each of these sectors take approximately one third of the energy a nation uses. This approximation does not distinguish usage in industry, manufacturing or otherwise.

Be aware that that motor transport, other than railways, is currently almost entirely dependant on transportable oil sources, whereas other usage requirements are more flexible.

World primary energy consumption (at the end of 2001)

country year’s total energy consumption
oil natural gas coal alternative
hydro-
electricity
nuclear other
(million tonnes oil equivalent )
the world 9124.8
[100%]
3510.6
[38.5%]
2164.3
[23.7%]
2255.1
[24.7%]
594.5
[6.5%]
601.2
[6.6%]
 
Saudi Arabia 111.0
[100%]
62.7
[56.5%]
48.3
43.5%]
 
Iraq 28.7
[100%]
           
Kuwait 19.1
[100%]
10.5
[55.0%]
8.6
[45.0%]
 
Iran 114.3
[100%]
54.2
[47.4%]
58.5
[51.2%]
0.8
[0.07%]
0.8
[0.07%]
 
United Arab Emirates 45.2
[100%]
14.3
[31.6%]
30.8
[68.4%]
 
Russian Federation 643.0
[100%]
122.3
[19.0%]
335.4
[52.2%]

114.6
[17.8
%]

39.8
[6.2%]
30.9
[4.8%]
 
Venuzuela 61.9
[100%]
22.2
[35.9%]
26.0
[42%]
* 13.7
[22.1%]
 
China 839.7
[100%]
231.9
[27.6%]
24.9
[3.0%]
520.6
[62.0%]

58.3
[6.9
%]

4.0
[0.05%]
 
Libya 11.5
[100%]
           
Mexico 127.7
[100%]

82.7
[64.8
%]

30.4
[23.8%]
6.3
[4.9%]
6.4
[5.0%]
2.0
[1.6%]
 
Nigeria 17.9
[100%]
           
USA 2237.3
[100%]
895.6
[40.0%]

554.6
[24.8%]

555.7
[24.8%]
48.3
[2.2%]
183.2
[8.2%]
 
Norway 41.7
[100%]
9.7
[23.3%]
4.0
[9.6%]
0.6
[1.4%]
27.4
[65.7%]
 
Algeria 25.0
[100%]
           
UK 224.0
[100%]
76.1
[34.0%]
85.9
[38.3%]
40.3
[18.0%]
1.5
[0.7%]
20.4
[9.1%]
 
Japan 514.5
[100%]
247.2
[48.0%]
71.1
[13.8%]
103.0
[20.0%]
20.4
[4.0%]
72.7
[14.1%]
 
France 256.4
[100%]
95.8
[37.4%]
36.6
[14.3%]
10.9
[4.3%]
18.1
[7.1%]
94.9
[37.0%]
 
Germany 335.2
[100%]
131.6
[39.3%]
74.6
[22.3%]
84.4
[25.2%]

5.8
[1.7%]

38.7
[11.5%]
wind:
approx. 1%
Denmark 18.9
[100%]
10.1
[53.4%]
4.6
[24.3%]
4.2
[22.2%]
* wind:
approx. 5%
Canada 274.6
[100%]
88.0
[32%]
65.4
[23.8%]
28.9
[10.5%]
17.4
[5.3%]
75.0
[27.3%]
 
Iceland 2.5
[100%]
0.9
[36%]
0.1
[4%]
1.5
[60%]
 

1 tonne oil equivalent is equivalent to 12 megawatt hours [mwh] electricity.

However, a tonne of oil used in a power station to generate electricity produces about one third of this amount, that is 4 mwh electricity.

Note: all energy uses involve inefficiencies. In this case, the efficiency would be expressed as 33%.

* less than 0.05
alternative’: The figures in the nuclear and hydro columns are the result of calculating the equivalent amount of fossil fuel required to generate the same amount of electricity as produced from nuclear or hydro, applying a 38% notional efficiency when generating from fossil fuels. These figures do not apply to the electricity supplied as a percentage of the country’s total end energy usage.
The figures for wind and other alternatives are currently not comparable in the table to those for nuclear and hydro, but instead represent a percentage of the end-use electricity consumed by that country.

 

sources:
mostly http://www.bp.com/downloads/1087/statistical_review.pdf

http://www.enerdata.fr/enerdata_UK/Produits/exemples/conso.pdf
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/contents.html

the web address for this page is
http://www.abelard.org/news/oil3.htm#oil010103

02.01.2003

related material

The politics of irresponsibility (Jan 2003)

The politics of irresponsibility (Nov & Dec 2002)

The Prestige debacle, part 2 (Nov. & Dec.2002)

Another potential ecological oil mess (Nov. 2002)

World oil resources

World oil reserves and oil-based fuel development

Oil technical information and data


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