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aerosols and greenhouse gas interaction

gases' warming potential, by weight. Derived from D. Shindell et al./Science “Recently, Shindell and his colleagues modified a NASA climate model to consider chemical reactions among major atmospheric constituents and the resulting effect on aerosol concentration. Their report, in the Oct. 29 Science, reveals that some greenhouse gases have a substantially stronger warming effect than previously recognized because they take part in reactions that destroy aerosols, while others actually tend to boost concentrations of cooling aerosols.”

“New portions of the revised model consider the influence of methane, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides on the atmospheric concentration of hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive molecules sometimes referred to as the atmosphere’s detergent. Hydroxyl concentrations can be depleted as these radicals react with gases in the atmosphere [or increased in the case of nitrogen oxides- ed.], and this slows the reactions that produce light-colored, light-scattering sulfate aerosols, Shindell says. “And a lower number of aerosols means a lower cooling effect,” he notes.”

“ ...Recent studies have found that as much as 20 percent of the warming in Europe since the 1970s stems from a decline in aerosols, such as fog and haze, during that period.” [Quoted from sciencenews.com]

Another, more detailed version with further links.

related material
anthropogenic global warming, and ocean acidity
how atmospheric chemistry and physics effects global warming

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c’mon chaps - pour some more crud from the filthy fossil fuel industry into the river

Coal? why not.
Oil? fine.
Gas? why not,

but please, no clean, safe, nuclear power.

Good job it’s not a gallon of low-level nuclear waste.

Roll up, roll up - poor your arsenic and mercury into our river.
A million gallons of crud a day should be great
Good thing the filthy fossil fuel industry gives Obama ‘donations’.

“25 nov 2009
Last month the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) granted TVA a permit under the Clean Water Act that will allow the federal corporation to discharge wastewater polluted with toxic arsenic, mercury and selenium into the river from the plant in Roane County. The discharge will come from from a pond that will hold liquid waste collected from a new air pollution scrubber.

“That permit is being challenged by three environmental advocacy groups -- Earthjustice, the Environmental Integrity Project and the Sierra Club.

“ "The Clean Water Act requires TDEC to eliminate toxic discharges from the Kingston plant," says EIP Attorney Lisa Widawsky. "Instead, incredibly, TDEC is authorizing new discharges of toxic heavy metals -- to the tune of one million gallons a day -- into the same river devastated by the Kingston coal ash spill." ” [Quoted from southernstudies.org]

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China’s latest coal mine disaster kills 108.

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3 nov 2009
“ Monitoring the clean-up of a huge oil spill in pristine Australian waters could take as long as seven years, an official said Wednesday as environmentalists urged a wide-ranging inquiry into the disaster.” [Quoted from google.com/afp]

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Canada is deelighted with one of the filthiest fossil fuel site on the planet.

“Stronger investment income, oil royalties and corporate income tax revenues have buoyed the Alberta government’s economic picture, reducing the province’s projected deficit to $4.3-billion.

“In its fiscal update in August, the government forecast the 2009-10 shortfall to rise to $6.9-billion from its initial budget projection of a $4.7-billion deficit.” [Quoted from canada.com]

related material
nuclear power - is nuclear power really really dangerous?
fossil fuel disasters

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never-ending disasters in the filthy fossil fuel industry: 66 trapped, 42 dead

26.11.09 update: Final death toll appears to be 108, with more than 60 injured.

What was that nonsense about ‘clean coal’?
What was the nonsense about the dangers of nuclear power? In fact, it’s the safest mass power known.

Oh don’t worry, it’s nothing to do with us. We’re trying to clean up the planet. This is just the China to where we are exporting out manufacturing to save the planet!

The filth will stay in China:

“At least 42 miners are dead and dozens still trapped underground after a coal mine explosion in northern China early Saturday.

“Rescuers have been trying to reach 66 people who are believed to be half a kilometre inside the state-owned Xinxing mine, near Hegang City in China's Heilongjiang province.

“State-run media reports that at the time of the explosion an evacuation was underway after a warning about gas levels in the shaft.

“The blast was so powerful that it caused a nearby building to collapse and could be heard by people in Hegang, 10 kilometres away.”

related material
nuclear power - is nuclear power really really dangerous?
fossil fuel disasters

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just another large filthy fossil fuel industry disaster

 

Have you heard about it?
Why don’t the leftist fossil media report these endless fossil fuel disasters?
Yet they try to generate hysteria if a bucket is dropped at the very safe nuclear plants.

Who is controlling the fossil media agenda?

“Monitoring the clean-up of a huge oil spill in pristine Australian waters could take as long as seven years, an official said Wednesday as environmentalists urged a wide-ranging inquiry into the disaster.

“As many as 28,000 barrels of oil have gushed into the Timor Sea off Western Australia's northern coast in the 10 weeks since the West Atlas oil rig began leaking, raising concerns of an environmental disaster.

“Attempts to plug the hole were delayed by the need to bring equipment from Singapore, the difficulty of the operation some 2.6 kilometres (1.6 miles) below the seabed and a fierce inferno fuelled by the leak which erupted Sunday.” [Quoted from google.com/hostednews]

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“A fire-ravaged oil rig and platform in the Timor Sea remain highly dangerous despite the operators claiming it is stable, federal Resources Minister Martin Ferguson says.

“PTTEP Australasia announced on Tuesday afternoon that its fifth attempt to plug the leaking oil well had been successful and it had stopped the main fire at the Montara wellhead platform.

“The oil began leaking on August 21 in the Montara field near the West Atlas oil rig, more than 200km northwest of Western Australia's Kimberley coastline.

“During a bid to plug the oil well with heavy mud on Sunday a fire broke out at the wellhead platform and the West Atlas oil rig” [Quoted from theage.com.au]

related material
fossil fuel disasters
major oil spills

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salt-tolerant plants being developed using gm

“ "Salinity affects the growth of plants worldwide, particularly in irrigated land where one third of the world's food is produced. And it is a problem that is only going to get worse, as pressure to use less water increases and quality of water decreases,"...”


Australia map showing salinity seepage zones,
from
Tougher crops for a warming world, .pdf page 17

“An international team of scientists has developed salt-tolerant plants using a new type of genetic modification (GM), bringing salt-tolerant cereal crops a step closer to reality.”



Comparison of genetically modified (GM) plants and non-GM plants grown in saline conditions:
above: non-GM plants in saline conditions; below: GM plants in the same conditions.
Image: Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics (ACPFG)/University of Adelaide.

“Professor Tester says his team used the technique to keep salt - as sodium ions (Na+) - out of the leaves of a model plant species. The researchers modified genes specifically around the plant's water conducting pipes (xylem) so that salt is removed from the transpiration stream before it gets to the shoot.

“ "This reduces the amount of toxic Na+ building up in the shoot and so increases the plant's tolerance to salinity," Professor Tester says.

“ "In doing this, we've enhanced a process used naturally by plants to minimise the movement of Na+ to the shoot. We've used genetic modification to amplify the process, helping plants to do what they already do - but to do it much better."

“The team is now in the process of transferring this technology to crops such as rice, wheat and barley.”

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yet another enormous filthy fossil fuel disaster

Exploding with the force of a small earthquake; aeroplanes being diverted.

Puerto Rico gas storage explosion. Image: Leighton/AP

“Puerto Rico

“Local police and FBI agents are investigating the cause of the early morning explosion, which prompted the evacuation of the nearby area, including all facility workers and many local people.

“The fire is expected to take days to extinguish.” [Quoted from itn.co.uk]

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“An enormous explosion rocked the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico early Friday as 15 fuel tanks blew up at a gasoline refinery, leaving two people injured, officials said.

“The massive fireball at the Caribbean Petroleum Corp plant left the surrounding area and much of the nearby capital city San Juan under a huge cloud of black smoke, prompting fears that the accident could cause serious environmental damage to the surrounding area” [Quoted from channelnewsasia.com]

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Toxic smoke from gas storage explosion. Image: AP Photo/Primera Hora, Vanessa Serra Diaz

24 October, 2009 7pm local time
“Thousands of people living downwind from a burning fuel-storage site in Puerto Rico were urged to leave on Saturday to avoid toxic smoke still billowing from the blaze.

“Fortuno said a large stadium has been prepared to accommodate some 30,000 people who live in the area if necessary.

“ "The smoke is extremely toxic," said Jose Bartolomei, a state epidemiologist who monitors asthma. "An asthmatic patient will definitely hyper-react to this."

“Adding to the danger posed by toxic smoke is the presence of invisible gases such as carbon monoxide and sulphur, ...” [Quoted from cbc.ca]

Stop press, late Saturday: eighteen tanks now exploded. State of Emergency declared.

related material
fossil fuel disasters
energy economics and fossil fuels—how long do we have?

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once it was acid rain, now it’s acid oceans

Coral and household vinegar

Marine biologist Steve Palumbi of Stanford University makes small video documantaries - microdocs, or short attention span science videos - on ecological topics.

One video is on the affect of acid oceans, caused by carbon dioxide from the air reacting with the sea water to form acid. The acid dissolves coral, shells and even limestone rock. The result is the habitat of marine animals, such as fish, is also disappearing.

The ocean surface pH (measurement of acidity) was pH 8.0. It is forecast to be pH 7.8 in fifty year’s time, a substantial increase in acidity for the marine life to contend with.

coral dissolving in acid
coral dissolving in acid
the coral after 24 hours in the acid
the coral after 24 hours in the acid

“... he outlines (with superb clarity) the issue of ocean acidification and illustrates why it is such a serious threat to marine ecosystems like coral reefs. While Steve is using stronger acid than ultimately will be seen in the world’s oceans as they acidify (essentially speeding up the process), he illustrates the key nature of the threat in a way that anyone could understand.” [Quoted from climateshifts.org]

[Lead from Lazar]

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